Concrete is the essential material for all construction projects
Concrete is the most common material in civil engineering and has been used more than any other artiﬁcial material in the world. Many important civil infrastructures, such as dams, bridges, tunnels, skyscrapers, villas, town homes are made of concrete. Concrete is known for its low production costs, relatively high compressive strength, and plasticity.
PROBLEMS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED WITH CONCRETE
Concrete is weak in tension and cracks are formed under relatively low tensile stress. As a result, cracking is the most common type of damage in concrete. The existence of cracks in a concrete structure can lead to a decline in bearing capacity and create many durability problems; therefore, the structure’s security and service life may be reduced.